Absolute Structured References in Excel Tables | Excel Campus

Absolute Structured References in Excel Table Formulas

This post will explain a trick for creating absolute structured references in Excel Table formulas.

Structured Reference Tables are great for creating clean, easy to read formulas.  But creating absolute references to the columns (aka anchoring the columns) in the formula is a bit tricky.

Quick Guide

Duplicate the column references as if referring to multiple columns.  Absolute references to:

  • One column in the same or other table: table1[[column1]:[column1]]
  • One cell in the same row as the formula: table1[@[column1]:[column1]]
  • Table names must be used even if the reference and formula cell are in the same table.
  • You must drag these formulas across columns to maintain the absolute reference (copy & paste does not work).

I have developed an add-in allows you to use the F4 key on the keyboard to create absolute/relative references.  You can download the Absolute Reference Add-in here.

Video Tutorial


Overview of Tables

In Excel 2007, Microsoft introduced Structured Reference Tables (aka Tables).  These tables have a lot of great features that make it easier to work with and analyze data sets.  Tables include a new syntax for referring to table columns in formulas.

Excel Cell Reference vs Table Reference

Instead of using cell addresses with column letters and row numbers, Tables allow you to reference cells or ranges with the table and column name.  The major benefit of this is that formulas are much easier to type and read when they refer to descriptive attributes of the table (table and column names).

If you are not familiar with the Tables feature yet, checkout this video:

Excel Tables Tutorial: Beginners Guide for Windows & Mac

Excel Tables Video Page

The video is an in-depth tutorial on how to create and use tables.  I explain 10 awesome features that will save you lots of time when working with your data.


Problem with Absolute References in Tables

However, there is no direct way to create an absolute reference for a table reference in a formula.  By default, all table references are absolute and have the following behavior when dragged or copied:

  • Formula dragged across columns: Column references change by referring to the next column to the right.
  • Formula copy/pasted across: Column references remain static; do not change when copy/pasted.

When your formula needs to contain a combination of absolute and relative references, there is no way to drag or copy the formula across and keep the references correct.  Dragging the formula across will make all the references change, and copy/pasting will make all the references stay the same.


I’m going to use the following SUMIF formulas as an example.  You can download the example workbook below to follow along.

  • Cell Reference (cell G5): =SUMIF($E$12:$E$23,$E5,G$12:G$23)
  • Structured Table Reference (cell G6): =SUMIF(t_Data[Color],[@Color],t_Data[Q1 Units])

These formulas reference the exact same cells in the worksheet.  The structured reference formula contains the table and column names instead of the cell references.  This table style was introduced in Excel 2007, and carries through to Excel 2010 and 2013.  In my opinion the formula is much easier to read because you know exactly what you are summing.  In this case, we are summing all rows that contain the Color in the t_Data table that match the color in the same row [@Color] as the formula for [Q1 Units].

The goal is to drag/copy this formula to the right so we can see the results for Q2, Q3, and Q4.  And we don’t want to waste time retyping the formula.

In the cell reference formula we are able to anchor column E in the first argument by adding a $ sign in front of the E ($E$12:$E$23).  So when you copy or drag the formula across the columns, the reference will remain anchored to column E.  This is an absolute reference.  If we perform this same copy/drag operation with the structure reference formula, the column references will change for that same argument.  The “t_Data[Color]” reference will change to “t_Data[Region]” which is one column to the right.  This is considered a relative reference and not what we want for this formula.

The Solution

To create an absolute reference with structured references you need to add an additional and duplicate column reference.


Duplicating the column reference will anchor the reference when dragging across columns.  Here are the full formulas with relative and absolute references.

  • Relative: =SUMIF(t_Data[Color],[@Color],t_Data[Q1 Units])
  • Absolute: =SUMIF(t_Data[ [Color]:[Color] ],t_Summary[@ [Color]:[Color] ],t_Data[Q1 Units])

In the absolute formula you’ll notice that I anchored the first two arguments.  The [@Color] column needs be anchored as well.

To anchor a row reference you need to put the @ symbol before the duplicate column reference and wrap it all in brackets.  The table name is also required, even when the reference is in the same table as the formula.  So the row reference looks like:


This is an anchored reference to one cell in the same row as the formula.

Absolute Reference Add-in

The Absolute Reference Add-in helps make this process a lot faster by allowing you to use the F4 key on the keyboard to toggle between absolute/relative references in table formulas.

Absolute References Add-in F4 Key

It is very simple and easy to use, but packed with automated features so you can update your formulas in under 3 seconds!

Absolute Reference Add-in Userform Screenshot


Checkout the download page for more details.


Absolute References in Structured Reference Tables.xlsx (14.8 KB)

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Jon Acampora

Welcome to Excel Campus! I am excited you are here. My name is Jon and my goal is to help you learn Excel to save time with your job and advance in your career. I've been an avid Excel user and VBA developer for 10+ years. I am also a Microsoft MVP. I try to learn something new everyday, and want to share this knowledge with you to help you improve your skills. When I'm not looking at spreadsheets, I get outdoors and surf. :) more about me

Click Here to Leave a Comment Below 120 comments
Jason - July 18, 2017

Thank you so much for this. This has been a constant frustration for quite some time.

Nanna - June 16, 2017

Great post! Thank you! Any chance of updating the Add-In for Exceö 2016? Thank you!

JB - May 26, 2017

Thanks for this article – exactly what I was looking for!

Maxx Powah - May 18, 2017

you are a gentleman and a scholar sir

zachary - May 5, 2017

Is there a way to keep excel from automatically changing structured references which reference table data to a regular range? It seems to do this on its own at random times.

I enter this

Next time I open excel the formula is this

Once excel makes this change it sometimes does not include all rows in the table as the table expands… it’s driving me crazy!

    Jon Acampora - June 1, 2017

    Hi Zachary,
    I’m not sure what would cause the references to change from structured references to regular range references unless you are converting the Table to a regular range.

Naz - April 24, 2017

Thank you very much. Just what I was looking for. And so lucidly explained.

Sergio - April 13, 2017

What about Table1 $[Jan] much better, it is not?

George - April 5, 2017

Great, thanks !

Aungkhaingmoe - March 24, 2017

Thank you very much

takdanai - March 23, 2017

thank you 🙂

Michael Jay Strong - March 18, 2017

Finally! Found a solution! Thank you!!!

C McInnis - January 28, 2017

Great work Jon


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